Intuitive explanations of statistical concepts for novices #1Lots of people use Analysis of Variance (Anova) without really understanding how it works, so I thought I'd have a go at explaining the basics in an intuitive fashion.
Consider three experiments, A, B and C, each of which compares the impact of an intervention on an outcome measure. The three experiments each have 20 people in a control group and 20 in an intervention group. Figure 1 shows the individual scores on an outcome measure for the two groups as blobs, and the mean score for each group as a dotted black line.
|Figure 1: Simulated data from 3 intervention studies|
In terms of average scores of control and intervention groups, the three groups look very similar, with the intervention group about .4 to .5 points higher than the control group. But we can't interpret this difference without having an idea of how variable scores are in the two groups.
For experiment A, there is considerable variation within each group, that swamps the average difference between the groups. In contrast, for experiment C, the scores within each group are tightly packed. Group B is somewhere in between.
If you enter these data into a one-way Anova, with group as a between-subjects factor, you get out a F-ratio, which can then be evaluated in terms of a p-value which gives the probability of obtaining such an extreme result if there is really no impact of the intervention. As you will see, the F-ratios are very different for A, B, and C, even though the group mean differences are the same. And in terms of the conventional .05 level of significance, the result from experiment A is not significant, experiment C is significant at the .001 level, and experiment B shows a trend (p = .051).
So how is the F-ratio computed? It just involves computing a number that reflects the ratio between the variance of the means of the groups, and the average variance within each group. When we just have two groups, as here, the first value just reflects how far away the two group means are from the overall mean. This is the Between Groups term, which is just the Variance of the two means multiplied by the number in each group (20). That will be similar for A, B and C, because the means for the two groups are similar and the numbers in each group are the same.
But the Within Groups term will differ substantially for A, B, and C, because it is computed as the average variance for the two groups. The F-ratio is obtained by just dividing the between groups term by the within groups term. If the within groups term is big, F is small, and vice versa.
The R script used to generate Figure 1 can be found here: https://github.com/oscci/intervention/blob/master/Rftest.R
PS. 20/11/2017. Thanks to Jan Vanhove for providing code to show means rather than medians in Fig 1.